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Inflammatory diseases. chronic endometritis, adnexitis. tuberculosis process. tuberculosis of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries. Genital infections. gonorrhea, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, etc. Violations of menstruation in the form of spotting and even delays in the cycle are observed after severe psychological trauma (sudden death of relatives, divorce, physical abuse).
In impressionable teenage girls and students, menstrual dysfunction can be provoked by entrance or final exams. Often, due to inhibitory reactions at the level of the brain, immediately after a stressful situation, 1-3 monthly cycles fall out, then scanty discharge occurs within 1-2 months. As the severity of the experiences decreases, menstruation is restored.
Surgical interventions. resection of the ovaries for injuries and tumors, removal of myomatous nodes, postoperative atresia of the cervical canal. Violation of the secretory function of the ovaries. consequences of radiation and chemotherapy of malignant tumors, polycystic ovaries. Diseases of the brain. tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary region, traumatic brain injury. Endocrine and metabolic disorders. hypothyroidism, persistent galactorrhea syndrome, obesity.
Since scanty periods are more common in diseases of the reproductive sphere, a gynecologist is usually engaged in the search for the causes of the disorder. In the course of a comprehensive examination, the condition of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the patient's hormonal background are first assessed. For a quick preliminary diagnosis, they are prescribed.
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With the help of vaginal mirrors, violations of the structure of the genital organs, changes in the visible part of the cervix, and pathological vaginal discharge are detected. The examination on the chair is complemented by a bimanual examination to assess the uterus and appendages. During the ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the size of the uterus, ovaries is determined, developmental anomalies, signs of inflammation, and tumor formations are detected.
To clarify the diagnosis according to indications, folliculometry and cervicometry are performed. Instrumental inspection. For a detailed study of the vaginal mucosa, cervical canal, uterus, colposcopy, cervicoscopy, hysteroscopy are prescribed. Biopsy is recommended if there are doubtful areas. Diagnostic laparoscopy is performed when ovarian involvement is suspected. laboratoryatorial methods. To exclude the inflammatory process and identify the pathogen, a smear on the flora, sowing with an antibiogram, serological reactions (RIF, ELISA, PCR) are shown. Informative analyzes for the level of estradiol, progesterone, pituitary hormones (FSH, LH, prolactin) and thyroid gland.
If the role of gynecological pathology in the appearance of scanty menstruation is not established, brain damage is necessarily excluded. For this purpose, a consultation with a neurologist, an examination of the fundus by an oculist, an X-ray of the skull or a sighting image of the Turkish saddle, an MRI of the pituitary gland, and electroencephalography (EEG) are prescribed.
In the presence of meager periods caused by physiological causes, treatment is not required. When hypomenorrhea is associated with lifestyle features (malnutrition, intense training, stress), in most cases it is enough to adjust the diet, reduce sports loads, and increase rest to restore the cycle. It is useful to take multivitamin complexes, and for emotional experiences - light sedative herbal remedies. For the rest of the patients, treatment, especially with the use of hormonal agents, is prescribed only after the diagnosis is established.
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Hypomenorrhea (scanty menstruation) is a violation of menstrual function, which is characterized by a decrease in the number of menstrual bleeding relative to the physiological norm. Often, scanty periods are accompanied by a decrease in the duration of discharge (oligomenorrhea) or cause a complete absence of menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea).
Hypomenorrhea can be a sign of physiological processes (premenopause, the formation of menstrual function) or pathological conditions of the genitourinary system. When scanty menstruation is considered the norm.